Category:Joints

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This category uses the form Joint.


Acromioclavicular Joint Joint type: Planar JointBones: Clavicle, ScapulaLigaments: Coracoclavicular, coracoacromial, superior acromioclavicular, and inferior acromioclavicular ligaments.Muscles: No muscles directly act on this joint.Innervation: Axillary, suprascapular, and lateral pectoral nervesVasculature: Suprascapular and thoracoacromial arteriesROM: Upward rotation: 30 degrees, external rotation:8 degreesVolume: 2mL
Atlanto-axial Joint Joint type: Pivot JointBones: C1 (Atlas), C2 (Axis)Innervation: C2ROM: Rotation ~45° each way, flexion-extension ~10° each way, and lateral flexion ~5° each way
Atlanto-occipital Joint Joint type: Condyloid JointBones: C1 (Atlas), OcciputLigaments: Two articular capsules, posterior atlanto-occipital membrane, anterior atlanto-occipital membraneMuscles: Flexion by longi capitis and recti capitis anteriores; extension by recti capitis posteriores major and minor, the obliquus capitis superior, the semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, sternocleidomastoid, and upper fibres of the trapezius.Innervation: C1Vasculature: Anastomosis between the deep cervical, occipital and vertebral arteries.ROM: 3.5 flexion, 21 extension, 10.9 lateral flexion each way, 6.7 rotation each way
Cervical Zygapophyseal (Facet) Joint Joint type: Planar Joint
Distal Radioulnar Joint Joint type: Pivot JointBones: Radius, UlnaLigaments: Triangular, anterior distal radioulnar, and posterior distal radioulnar ligamentsMuscles: Pronation: pronator quadratus, pronator teres; Supination: supinator, biceps brachiiInnervation: Anterior and posterior interosseous nervesVasculature: Anterior and posterior interosseous arteries
Elbow Joint Joint type: Hinge JointBones: Radius, Ulna, HumerusLigaments: Capsule, medial and lateral collateral ligaments, oblique cord, quadrate ligamentInnervation: Radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous nervesVasculature: Anastomotic arcades formed by branches of radial, ulnar, and brachial arteries.
First Carpometacarpal Joint (Trapeziometacarpal Joint) Joint type: Saddle JointBones: Metacarpal, TrapeziumLigaments: Capsule, anterior oblique, ulnar collateral, first intermetacarpal, posterior oblique, dorsoradial ligaments.Innervation: Lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, palmar cutaneous branch of the median nerve, superficial radial nerveVasculature: First dorsal metacarpal branch of the radial arteryROM: 53° of flexion/extension, 42° of abduction/adduction, and 17° of rotation
Glenohumeral Joint Joint type: Ball and Socket JointBones: Humerus, ScapulaLigaments: Capsule, glenohumeral, coracohumeral and transverse humeral ligamentsMuscles: abduction: deltoid assisted by the supraspinatus; adduction: short scapular muscles (except supraspinatus) when the deltoid relaxes. Assisted by the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi; flexion: clavicular head of the pectoralis major and the anterior fibres of the deltoid, assisted by the coracobrachialis and biceps; extension: latissimus dorsi, posterior fibres of the deltoid and the long head of the triceps; rotation: lateral rotation: infraspinatus and teres minor, medial rotation: subscapularis and teres majorInnervation: suprascapular, subscapular, axillary and lateral pectoral nervesVasculature: anterior and posterior humeral circumflex, and subscapular arteriesROM: arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and internal and external rotation
Hip Joint Joint type: Ball and Socket JointBones: Ilium, FemurLigaments: Ischiofemoral, iliofemoral, pubofemoral, transverse acetabular, and ligamentum teresMuscles: 27 musculotendinous units are involved in hip functionInnervation: Femoral, obturator and superior gluteal nerves, and nerve to quadratus femorisVasculature: Branches of the medial and lateral circumflex femoral, superior and inferior gluteal arteries and obturator arteriesROM: Flexion 140°, extension 20°, Internal rotation 30°, external rotation 40°, abduction 50°, adduction 30°Volume: 1-10mL
Interphalangeal Joints (Foot) Joint type: Hinge JointBones: Proximal Phalanx (Foot), Distal Phalanx (Foot)
Knee Joint Joint type: Saddle Joint, Hinge JointBones: Tibia, Femur, PatellaInnervation: Popliteal nerve, tibial nerveVasculature: Genicular branches of the popliteal arteryROM: Mainly sagittal plane: 3° of hyperextension to 155° of flexion
Lumbar Zygapophyseal (Facet) Joint Joint type: Planar Joint
Metacarpophalangeal Joint Joint type: Condyloid JointBones: Metacarpal, Proximal Phalanx (Hand)Ligaments: Capsule, two collateral ligaments, palmar (volar) ligamentInnervation: Digital nerves from the ulnar and median nervesVasculature: Deep digital arteries from the superficial palmar arch
Metatarsophalangeal Joints Joint type: Condyloid JointBones: Metacarpal, Proximal Phalanx (Foot)Ligaments: Capsule, collateral ligamentous complexes, plantar plate. For great toe also sesamoid-phalangeal ligaments.Muscles: flexor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis, extensor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum brevis, flexor digiti minimi brevis, abductor digiti minimi, dorsal and plantar Interossei, lumbricalsInnervation: Digital nerves from the ulnar and median nervesVasculature: Deep digital arteries from the superficial palmar arch
Proximal Radioulnar Joint Joint type: Pivot JointBones: Radius, UlnaLigaments: Annular ligamentInnervation: Articular branches of the musculocutaneous, median, and radial nerveVasculature: Radial portion of the peri-articular arterial anastomosis of the elbow joint
Radiocarpal Joint Joint type: Condyloid JointBones: Radius, Ulna, Scaphoid, Lunate, TriquetrumLigaments: Volar: radial collateral ligament to styloid process, radioscaphocapitate, ligament radiolunate ligament, radioscapholunate ligament; Dorsal: radioscaphoid ligament, radiolunate ligament, radiotriquetral ligamentMuscles: flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis and ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor digitorum, flexor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi ulnaris, extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis, flexor carpi radialisInnervation: anterior interosseous nerve arising from median nerve (C5-T1), posterior interosseous nerve arising from radial nerve (C7-C8)Vasculature: Palmar carpal arch (from palmar carpal branches of radial and ulnar arteries, reinforced by anterior interosseous artery and penetrating deep branches of deep palmar arch), dorsal carpal arch (formed by dorsal carpal branches of radial and ulnar arteries, reinforced by anterior and posterior interosseous arteries)
Sacroiliac Joint Bones: Ilium, SacrumLigaments: Anterior sacroiliac, interosseous sacroiliac, posterior sacroiliac, long posterior sacroiliac, sacrotuberous, sacrospinous, and iliolumbar ligaments.Innervation: Posterior joint lateral branches of the posterior rami of L5-S4. Anterior joint L4-S3 (+/- L3, sacral plexus, superior gluteal nerve)Vasculature: Median sacral artery and the lateral sacral branches of the internal iliac arteryROM: 0-2°Volume: 1 - 1.5 mLs
Sternoclavicular Joint Joint type: Saddle JointBones: Clavicle, Rib 1, ManubriumLigaments: Sternoclavicular, costoclavicular, interclavicular ligs.Innervation: Medial supraclavicular (C3-4) and subclavian (C5-6) nn.Vasculature: Internal thoracic and suprascapular aa. (branches of the subclavian a.)ROM: 35° in the horizontal and coronal planes, 70° range of motion anteroposteriorly, 50° of rotation along its long axis.
Talocalcaneal Joint (Subtalar Joint) Joint type: Planar JointBones: Talus, CalcaneusLigaments: Multiple, interosseous talocalcaneal ligament is most importantInnervation: Medial plantar, lateral plantar, and deep fibular nervesVasculature: Posterior tibial and fibular arteriesROM: Equal components of inversion/eversion and abduction/adduction.
Tibiotalar Joint (Talocrural Joint) Joint type: Hinge JointBones: Tibia, Fibula, TalusLigaments: Syndesmosis, medial collateral ligaments, lateral collateral ligamentsInnervation: tibial nerve, deep peroneal nerveVasculature: anterior and posterior tibial arteries, peroneal arteryROM: 10° to 20° of dorsiflexion, 40° to 55° of plantarflexionVolume: 16-30 mL