There is the development of thickened, fibrosed joint capsule with subsequent contraction of the joint and reduced articular volume. The exact cause is unknown – several possible processes suggested. There is a wide spectrum of presentations and combinations of symptoms.
The peak incidence is between 40-60, more common in women. Patients with diabetes have a 10-20% lifetime risk. Other associated conditions include hypothyroidism, hypercholesterolaemia and heart disease.
History: insidious onset, pain at night, sometimes history of minimal trauma.
Exam: painful movement restriction, passive ext rotation less than 30 degrees, passive elevation less than 100.
Investigations: Xray to check for OA.
- Freezing: stiffness, with progressively worsening pain
- Frozen: on going stiffness, with improved pain levels
- Thawing: gradual improvement in ROM. However clinical course is variable.
- RC cuff (preserved ER)
- Septic arthritis (rapid onset, single swollen joint)
- dislocation (traumatic)
- Inflammatory arthritis.
- Neuralgic Amyotrophy
In a multi-centre trial of 503 adults with severe persistent frozen shoulder symptoms were randomised to arthroscopic capsular release (ACR), manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA), or physiotherapy supplemented with corticosteroid injection. Arthroscopic capsular release was significantly better than manipulation under anaesthesia and physiotherapy, but the differences were small and unlikely to be clinically significant. Arthroscopic capsular release has significant side effects such as stroke, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis.
It is often characterised as a “self limiting” condition that lasts usually 1-3 years. Recent literature suggest 41% report residual symptoms.
Recurrence rare. Up to 20% develop it on the other side
Diabetics have poorer response to treatment.
- Kitridis D, Tsikopoulos K, Bisbinas I, Papaioannidou P, Givissis P. Efficacy of pharmacological therapies for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: A systematic review and network meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med 2019;47(14):3552-3560.
- Rangan et al.. Management of adults with primary frozen shoulder in secondary care (UK FROST): a multicentre, pragmatic, three-arm, superiority randomised clinical trial. Lancet (London, England) 2020. 396:977-989. PMID: 33010843. DOI.
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