Cervical Spine Examination

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  • Flexion rotation test (FRT) - this passive test assesses movement dysfunction at the C1/2 segment. The C1/2 segment comprises around 60% of the total cervical range of motion regardless of age. By maximally flexing the neck, theoretically all structures below C2 are constrained and therefore have limited ability to contribute to rotation. It has been shown to be accurate and reliable. Range of motion reduces with age by about 4-7 degrees per decade.[1]


  1. Schäfer, Axel Georg Meender, et al. “Upper Cervical Range of Rotation during the Flexion-Rotation Test Is Age Dependent: An Observational Study.” Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease, Jan. 2020, Full Text