Glenohumeral Joint

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Coronal section of the shoulder joint labeled.jpg
Sagittal section through the glenohumeral joint
Glenohumeral Joint
Synonym Shoulder joint
Primary Type Synovial Joint
Secondary Type Ball and Socket Joint
Bones Scapula, Humerus
Feature Intra-articular long head of biceps tendon.
Ligaments Capsule, glenohumeral, coracohumeral and transverse humeral ligaments
Muscles abduction: deltoid assisted by the supraspinatus; adduction: short scapular muscles (except supraspinatus) when the deltoid relaxes. Assisted by the pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi; flexion: clavicular head of the pectoralis major and the anterior fibres of the deltoid, assisted by the coracobrachialis and biceps; extension: latissimus dorsi, posterior fibres of the deltoid and the long head of the triceps; rotation: lateral rotation: infraspinatus and teres minor, medial rotation: subscapularis and teres major
Innervation suprascapular, subscapular, axillary and lateral pectoral nerves
Vasculature anterior and posterior humeral circumflex, and subscapular arteries
ROM arm flexion, extension, adduction, abduction, and internal and external rotation
Volume
Conditions Adhesive Capsulitis, Clavicle Fractures, Coracoclavicular Joint Pain, Distal Clavicle Osteolysis, Neuralgic Amyotrophy, Paediatric Fractures of the Upper Extremities, Proximal Humerus Fractures, Quadrilateral Space Syndrome, Rotator Cuff Tendinopathy, Scapular Winging, Sternoclavicular Joint Pain and Instability, Subacromial Pain Syndrome, Suprascapular Nerve Entrapment, Thoracic Outlet Syndrome