Tibial Nerve

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Sacral and pudendal plexuses Gray828.png
Plan of sacral and pudendal plexuses (Tibial nerve labelled at centre left)
Tibial Nerve
Nerve Type Mixed nerve
Origin One of the two branches of the sciatic nerve in the lower third of the thigh. L4-S3.
Course Through popliteal fossa, deep to gastrocnemius, and under the flexor retinaculum of the ankle.
Major Branches Sural Nerve, Medial Plantar Nerve, Lateral Plantar Nerve, Medial Calcaneal Nerve
Sensory innervation Articular branches to the joints of the knee, ankle, and foot. Cutaneous branches to the posterior calf and sole of the foot.
Motor innervation Posterior Compartment of the Thigh, Posterior Compartment of the Leg, muscles of the sole of the foot


Course

It forms the medial portion of the sciatic nerve. It leaves the sciatic nerve in the lower thigh and runs to the central popliteal fossa between and deep to the Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. It courses into the lower leg under the fibrous arch of soleus, along the Tibialis Posterior. It reaches medially to lie posterior to the medial malleolus of the ankle under the flexor retinaculum.[1]

Branches

Branches in Thigh:

Motor: Gastrocnemius, Popliteus, Plantaris

Sensory: knee and superficial tibiofibular joints, Sural Nerve to posterolateral calf and lateral foot skin.

Branches in Leg:

Motor: Soleus, Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Flexor Hallucis Longus

Sensory: Ankle Joint, Medial Calcaneal Nerve to heel and medial sole of skin

Branches in Foot:

Motor: Medial Plantar Nerve, Lateral Plantar Nerve

Sensory: Medial Plantar Nerve, Lateral Plantar Nerve

Lesion Effect

A high lesion of the tibial nerve results in

  • Loss of flexion of the toes and inversion of the foot.
  • Loss of sensation of the sole of the foot, inferior aspect of the toes, and nail beds
Nerves of the right lower limb, posterior view

References

  1. "Instant Anatomy - Lower Limb - Nerves - Tibial". www.instantanatomy.net. Retrieved 2022-04-17.