Gluteal Muscles

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Gluteal MusclesOriginInsertionActionNerve rootsNerves
Gluteus MaximusGluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligamentGreater trochanter of the femur and iliotibial tractExternal rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hipL5
S1
S2
Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5
S1 and S2 nerve roots)
Gluteus MediusGluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus Maximus. Three areas of origin: gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posterior inferior edge of the lip of the iliac crest.Greater trochanter of the femur. Three points of insertion: tendinous portion of the aponeurosis inserts onto the superolateral facet, the remainder inserts along an anteroinferior oblique line on the lateral facet.Abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial/internal rotation and flexion of the hip (anterior fibers). Extension and Lateral/external rotation of the hip (posterior fibers)L4
L5
S1
Superior Gluteal Nerve
Gluteus MinimusFrom area in between the anterior gluteal line and inferior gluteal line of Gluteal surface ilium, under gluteus medius.Greater trochanter of the femurWorks in concert with gluteus medius: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh.L4
L5
S1
Superior gluteal nerve

Sacral Plexus