Gluteus Maximus

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Posterior Hip Muscles 2.png
Gluteus Maximus
Muscle Type
Origin Gluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligament
Insertion Greater trochanter of the femur and iliotibial tract
Action External rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting and abduction of the hip
Synergists
Antagonists Iliacus, Psoas Major, Psoas Minor
Spinal innervation L5, S1, S2
Peripheral Innervation Inferior Gluteal Nerve (L5, S1 and S2 nerve roots)
Vasculature Superior and inferior gluteal arteries

The gluteus maximus muscle is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles. During the normal gait, the hamstrings provide most hip extension rather than the gluteus maximus.

Gluteus Maximus Lurch

Normally the gluteus maximus contracts at the point of heel strike during gait, arresting hip flexion, and thereby slowing forward motion of the trunk. A weakened gluteus maximus causes a backwards lurch (trunk extension) at heel strike on the weakened side, interrupting the forward motion of the trunk. This compensates for the weakness of hip extension.