Help:References

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Where possible provide references to journal articles or books so that facts can be confirmed and proven trustwothy. This is particularly true when a strong statement is being made, or when a fact is not well known. It is not always possible to read all the primary literature, and in this case it is acceptable to reference secondary literature such as uptodate or textbooks. This page will tell you everything you need to know about citing references and making notes.

It's okay if you are unable to provide references. For more details, see Wikipedia's guidelines on References and Citation. Also see ReferenCite

There are two ways of adding references. One way is with the visual editor (edit option), and the other is with the source editor (edit source option)

You can get the citation text by going to pubmed, then click "cite" on the right. Or you can just using the PMID number (see below).

Visual Editor

This is the editor you access when you click actions and edit. See here.

Click Cite which shows a few options. The first tab lets you put in a PMID or DOI and it will autogenerate the reference. The second tab is if you want to put the reference in manually (I suggest using "basic form" for everything which is much easier to use than the specific journal/textbook versions). The third tab lets you reuse references.

The automatic option is easiest. Paste in the PMID or DOI of the journal article and click generate. The click insert. This method doesn't currently work for ISBNs.

Source Editor

One way of referencing is by using the ref tag.

<ref>reference details here</ref>

To reuse a reference, first give it a name

<ref name="refname">reference details here</ref>

Then you can reuse it later in the article as follows

<ref name="refname"/>

Pubmed Referencing

This is the preferred method by using the PMID number. This way you get the link to the article automatically. To easily add a link to pubmed you can use the PMID code as follows, or click on the pubmed icon in the toolbar Pubmed-logo.png.

<ref>{{#pmid:27349714}}</ref>

The bottom of the page will now produce:

Takeda et al.. Diagnostic Value of the Supine Napoleon Test for Subscapularis Tendon Lesions. Arthroscopy : the journal of arthroscopic & related surgery : official publication of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the International Arthroscopy Association 2016. 32:2459-2465. PMID: 27349714. DOI. 

To add a name to be able to reuse it, click on the named pubmed icon in the toolbar Pubmed-logo-named.png or write it as below. Note: you don't add the ref tags when adding a name.

{{#pmid:27349714|Takeda2016}}

Then you reuse it later in the article just as before by clicking on the reuse icon in the toolbar Reuse.png and typing in the name, or using the following code.

<ref name="Takeda2016"/>

Book Referencing

You can search a book by it's ISBN here and it will then link you to websites that will provide the formatted text for referencing.

Footnotes

Sometimes you may wish to provide a textual footnote. It's not a reference to some source--just a small note of clarification that maybe doesn't belong in the body of the article. To make a footnote, use the basic reference template described earlier on this page.

Special Interest

The template {{Special}} can be used to add a special interest diamond, highlighting important articles. If this is done then put {{Special interest}} under the references heading to provide an explanation.

References Section

Every page should have a Notes section at the very bottom. We want the references to appear there. This is done by including a <references /> tag first thing in the Notes section. If you don't put this code at the bottom it will still appear automatically. For more on article structure, see Help:Guidelines#Article_Structure.

Editorial Notations

Not sure about a particular reference? You can still help us out by identifying statements that may need some attention. Just insert the following templates, exactly as shown, after the statement.

Request Citation {{cite}}
{{cite}} acts as a placeholder for future citation. It let's others know that the preceding fact needs a reference.
Request Clarification {{clarify}}
{{clarify}} lets others know that the preceding statement is unclear and needs some work.
Disputed Warning {{disputed}}
{{disputed}} warns the reader that the preceding information may be incorrect or unverified. If you see something that doesn't sound correct (especially if it has no reference), use this.

Derivations or reproductions from other websites

Depending on the creative commons licensing of content from other websites you may be able to reproduce and/or produce derivations of certain content.

If you derive an article from another CC website with the appropriate licencing then at the bottom of the website under a references heading put the following code

{{Article derivation|article=https://....|licence=CC...|licence-link="https://....}}

For example

{{Article derivation|article=https://radiopaedia.org/articles/coccyx|license=CC BY-NC-SA 3.0|license-link=https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/}} produces:
Part or all of this article or section is derived from [{{{article-link}}} https://radiopaedia.org/articles/coccyx] by {{{author}}}, used under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0


Reference WikiMSK

To reference/cite a wikimsk page click on views, then "cite this page" Alternatively, visit the following tool: Cite A Page